MACAQUES

The macaque genus, Macaca
includes at least 23 species
and 19 subspecies

Macaca munzala

CONSERVATION STATUS: ENDANGERED

Arunachal macaques were first described in 2005, after primatologists discovered a previously undescribed population of macaques during an expedition in eastern India. Arunachal macaques are native to India, and are known to live only in Arunachal Pradesh, a state far to the northeast of the country. Nestled in the eastern…

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Macaca assamensis

CONSERVATION STATUS: NEAR THREATEENED

The forests of southeast Asia are home to the Assam macaque (or Assamese macaque). Their homes span over nine countries from Vietnam to Nepal. In Tibet, they are also known as Himalayan macaques or hill monkeys. These Old World monkeys live in all types of dense primary forests, from the dry to the tropical. They move…

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Macaca radiata

CONSERVATION STATUS: VULNERABLE

Having learned to thrive in a wide range of habitats, the bonnet macaque is highly visible throughout India’s southern peninsula. Comprising two subspecies, the more common dark-bellied bonnet macaque, macaca radiata radiata, is found in the peninsula’s evergreen and deciduous forests, on dry prairies, and in urban…

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Photo courtesy of ©Erin Riley. Used with permission.

Macaca ochreata

CONSERVATION STATUS: VULNERABLE

The booted macaque lives in the tropical rainforests of Sulawesi, Indonesia. The species’ range extends from the lakes region in the northwhere it overlaps with that of the Tonkean macaque (Macaca tonkeana)—to the southern edges of the island’s southeastern peninsula. Further south, on the smaller islands of Muna and Buton…

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Macaca nigra

CONSERVATION STATUS: CRITICALLY ENDANGERED

Crested black macaques are found only in Indonesia, restricted to the northeastern-most peninsula of Sulawesi island (formerly known as Celebes) along the Onggak Dumoga River and the megalithic Mount Padang, and to Sulawesi’s neighboring islands of Pulau Manadotua and Pulau Talise. Historically, these Old World monkeys had…

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Macaca cyclopis

CONSERVATION STATUS: LEAST CONCERN

The Formosan rock macaque, also known as the Taiwan macaque, is native to the temperate forests in the mountains of Taiwan. They are the only non-human primates native to Taiwan. The species also exists in parts of Japan due to a series of both deliberate and accidental introductions that occurred in the mid-20th century…

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Macaca nigrescens

CONSERVATION STATUS: VULNERABLE

The Gorontalo macaque, also known as Dumoga-bone or Temminck’s macaque, is one of seven macaque species endemic to the Indonesian island of Sulawesi. They specifically inhabit the middle portion of the island’s northern peninsula, between the Bolango River in the west and the Onggak Dumoga River in the east. Their range…

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Photo courtesy of ©Jono Dashper

Macaca hecki

CONSERVATION STATUS: VULNERABLE

The Heck’s macaque is endemic to Indonesia in the northwestern province of Sulawesi at the base of the northern peninsula. Northern Sulawesi is primarily mountainous with many areas over 3,280 ft (1,000 m) in elevation and multiple active volcanoes. There are highland and lowland rainforests present in the region…

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Macaca fuscata

CONSERVATION STATUS: LEAST CONCERN

Japanese macaques, also called Japanese snow macaques or simply snow monkeys, are found on three of the four main Japanese islands—Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu—and live further north than any other macaque species. They live in a variety of habitats throughout these islands including subalpine, subtropical, deciduous…

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Macaca silenus

CONSERVATION STATUS: ENDANGERED

Primarily arboreal, the beautiful lion-tailed macaque, also known as the wanderoo, thrives in the upper canopy of tropical evergreen rainforests and monsoon forests, at a wide range of elevations, from 330 to 6,000 ft (100–1,850 m). They are endemic to the Western Ghats, a massive north-south running mountain range in India that…

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Macaca fascicularis

CONSERVATION STATUS: ENDANGERED

Common long-tailed macaques, also called crab-eating macaques and cynomolgus monkeys, are widely distributed across southeast Asia, including in Bangladesh,  Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, India (Nicobar Island), large areas of Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste, and…

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Macaca maura

CONSERVATION STATUS: ENDANGERED

The moor macaque is one of seven species of macaque found on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi. They are only found on the southwestern peninsula of the island at elevations below 6,600 feet (2,000 m), and overlap in some places with the Tonkean macaque. They inhabit rainforests and deciduous forests in the northern part of…

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Macaca leonina

CONSERVATION STATUS: VULNERABLE

Until recently, the northern pig-tailed macaque was considered a sub-species of Macaca nemestrina (now commonly called the southern pig-tailed macaque), but is now recognized as a separate species. These northern pig-tailed macaques are found over a wide area of southeastern Asia including India, Bangladesh, Myanmar…

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Macaca mulatta

CONSERVATION STATUS: LEAST CONCERN

Rhesus macaques, also referred to as rhesus monkeys, are Old World monkeys from Asia that range in geographic distribution from Afghanistan to the Pacific coast of China­­, including India, Bhutan, Laos, Nepal, Bangladesh, Thailand, Vietnam, and Pakistan. They boast the largest native range of any other nonhuman…

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Macaca siberu

CONSERVATION STATUS: ENDANGERED

The Siberut macaque is endemic to the island of Siberut, located about 100 miles (160 km) off the western coast of Sumatra. Siberut is the largest of the four islands in the Mentawaian archipelago and part of the biodiversity hotspot known as Sundaland, which is comprised of Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, and the western half of Indonesia. Of all the biodiversity…

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Macaca nemestrina

CONSERVATION STATUS: ENDANGERED

Southern pig-tailed macaques, also known as Sunda or Sundaland pig-tailed macaques, are native to Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand, and have also been introduced to areas of Singapore and the Natuna Islands. They are well at home in the dense tropical rainforests of southeast Asia, usually occupying lowland, coastal…

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Macaca arctoides

CONSERVATION STATUS: VULNERABLE

The stump-tailed macaque, also called the bear macaque, is an Old World monkey native to Cambodia, southwest China, northeast India, Laos, Myanmar, northwest Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. In the past, this monkey species was also found in eastern Bangladesh, but it is now believed to be extinct in the…

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Macaca thibetana

CONSERVATION STATUS: NEAR THREATENED

The Tibetan macaque—also called the Chinese stump-tailed macaque, Pére David’s macaque, or Milne-Edwards’ macaque—is a large, Old World monkey found in eastern Tibet and certain regions of China, particularly the Sichuan province. They have also reportedly been found in India. They prefer subtropical, deciduous, and…

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Macaca tonkeana

CONSERVATION STATUS: VULNERABLE

Tonkean macaques, also called Tonkean black macaques, are native to the central portion of island of Sulawesi and nearby Togian Islands in Indonesia. They are found in lowland and hill forests at moderate elevations below 5,000 ft (1500 m). The population density is estimated to be roughly three to five individuals per 0.6 square…

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Macaca sinica

CONSERVATION STATUS: ENDANGERED

Toque macaques are found only in Sri Lanka, an island country of South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea and considered one of the world’s 25 biodiversity hotspots. Locally, these Old World monkeys are referred to as rilewa or rilawa. They are accordingly…

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Photo credit: Dibyendu Ash/Creative Commons

Macaca leucogenys

CONSERVATION STATUS: NOT EVALUATED

A birdwatching group from northeast India, composed of wildlife photographers and biologists, affirmed the discovery of the white-cheeked macaque while visiting Mêdog county in southeastern Tibet in March 2015. It was in the Anjaw district of Arunachal Pradesh (a region claimed by India, China, and Taiwan with a related…

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