Who and What are Primates?
Primates are mammals that typically have large highly developed brains, forward-facing color vision, flexible hands and feet with opposable thumbs, and fingernails. (Typically, but not always.)
Primates have slower developmental rates than other similarly sized mammals, reaching maturity later in life, but with longer overall lifespans than many similarly-sized species.
With the exception of humans, who live throughout the globe, most primates live in tropical or subtropical regions. But don’t be fooled. Some also live in semi-deserts, alongside swamps, in cold mountainous regions, on rocky cliffs, or in cities.
The biological order “Primates” is divided into the following four classifications:
1. GREAT APES
bonobos, chimpanzees, gorillas, humans, and orangutans
2. SMALL APES
baboons, capuchin monkeys, colobus monkeys, drills, geladas, green monkeys, grivets, guenons, howler monkeys, kipunjis, langurs, lutungs, macaques, malbroucks, mandrills, mangabeys, marmosets, muriquis, night monkeys, patas monkeys, proboscis monkeys, sakis, snub-nosed monkeys, spider monkeys, squirrel monkeys, surilis, swamp monkeys, talapoins, tamarins, tantalus monkeys, titis, uakaris, vervets, and woolly monkeys
the oldest, most “primitive” order of primates includes angwantibos, galagos or bushbabies, lemurs, lorises, pottos, and, somewhat controversially, tarsiers
There are an estimated 522 primates species, plus an additional estimated 182 subspecies, with astounding diversity.
70% of primate species and subspecies are threatened by extinction.
Where in the World Do Nonhuman Primates Live?
Nonhuman primates live in regions of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Most (but not all) live in tropical climates along or near the equator. the map below provides reference points. Some live in quite diverse habitats ranging from semi-deserts to snowy mountains.
- Great apes live in Africa and Asia
- Small apes live only in Asia
- Monkeys live naturally in Africa, Asia, and Latin America
- Introduced* populations live in Gibraltar, on a few Caribbean islands, and in parts of the United States. These are not their native or natural homes
- Prosimians live in Africa and Asia
New World and Old World Monkeys
What's the Difference?
The terms “Old World” and “New World” are becoming obsolete in favor of “Afro-Eurasian” and “American” monkeys.
The “Afro-Eurasian” moniker is also referred to as “African-Eurasian monkeys”.
- Found from southern Mexico to Central and South America, except in the highest mountains
- More primitive than Afro-Eurasian monkeys
- Their brains are considered less complex than those of Afro-Eurasian monkeys
- Their thumbs, when present, are not opposable
- Their nostrils are further apart and tend to point outward
- Most have 36 teeth
- They have slender bodies and limbs with long narrow hands
- Most have a prehensile or partially prehensile tail
- Include capuchin monkeys, howler monkeys, marmosets, muriquis, night monkeys, saki monkeys, spider monkeys, squirrel monkeys, tamarins, titis, woolly monkeys, and uakaris
- No nonhuman apes are endemic to the Americas
- No prosimians are endemic to the Americas
- Found throughout Africa, with the exception of the most arid deserts, and in southern Asia, with a few species as far north as Japan and northern China
- Most, but not all, have opposable thumbs
- Their tails are never prehensile
- Their nostrils are close together and tend to point downward
- Many species have cheek pouches to hold food, and many have thick pads on their buttocks
- They have 32 teeth
- They are more closely related to the apes and, therefore, humans than they are to the American monkeys
- Include baboons, colobus monkeys, drills, geladas, green monkeys, grivets, guenons, kipunjis, langurs, leaf monkeys, macaques, malbroucks, mandrills, mangabeys, langurs, patas monkeys, proboscis monkeys, snub-nosed monkeys, surilis, swamp monkeys, talapoins, tantalus monkeys, and vervets
- All apes are found in Afro-Eurasian regions of the world
- Prosimians are also found in Afro-Eurasian regions
Want to Know More About Your Primate Cousins?
Have you ever heard of a talapoin?
Find your favorites…and many species you’ve probably never heard of!
You’ll be awed and intrigued by the diversity of primate species. Learn about your favorites. You may be surprised by what you’ll find!